Stephen S. Jones Sr. 1750 - 1844
Stephen S. Jones
DAR Plaque Harlan, KY.
|Born||August 19, 1750|
St. Mary's County, Maryland
|Died||September 1, 1844 (aged 94)|
Harlan County, Kentucky
|Resting place||Jones Cemetery,|
|Other names||RevWar Pension #S38092 DAR Ancestor #A062640|
Stephen S. Jones Sr. is a veteran of the Revolutionary War by serving three tours of duty in the North Carolina Militia.
Stephen S. Jones Sr. was a patriot, a pioneer, a hunter, a farmer, and a family man. For nearly fifty years he slowly migrated from Maryland to Kentucky and from a British subject to an American citizen. Once Stephen reached Kentucky, he planted his feet and "took root." Stephen became the patriarch of the Jones Family of Harlan County, Kentucky. Over 260 years later, his descendants are scattered across the United States and still going strong.
The early days of Stephen S. Jones of St. Mary's County, Maryland prior to about 1779 is unknown. Researchers familiar with Stephen S. Jones have a wealth of information after 1779. Unfortunately, however, both his birth county of St. Mary's County, Maryland and his death county of Harlan County, Kentucky are burn counties, leaving us Jones researchers with a lot of questions and blank fields. In 1768 and again in 1831, the St. Mary's County Courthouse suffered a fire destroying most, if not all, early civil records. To further hinder active research, Harlan County, Kentucky, Stephen's death county, became a burn county when in October of 1863, Confederate troops put torch to the Harlan County Courthouse in retaliation of Union troops burning down the courthouse at Lee County, Virginia. Not all records were lost in the Harlan County Courthouse fire but many important documents were turned to ashes.
Somewhere in the annuals of history is a ship manifest to the New World with our Jones ancestor's name on it.
According to his own words, as evidenced in Stephen Jones' Rev. War Pension Petition of 1834, Stephen Jones was born on Sunday, August 19, 1750, in St. Mary's County, Maryland. Some Jones researchers report his birth as August 15th. The discrepancy in dates may stem from deciphering the handwriting of the court recorder during Stephen's pension request testimony. With a quick look, it's possible the date might be misinterpreted as the 15th rather the 19th. However, a comparison in the recorder's handwriting of the 9 in the day to the 5 in the year 1750, clearly indicates the day is the 19th and not the 15th.
On page four of Stephen's pension interview, while not actually printed, the question of where and when his birth took place appears to have been put forward verbally to which he replies:
-- Stephen Jones ~ April 16, 1834 Rev War Pension Interview
Then a second question is posed, perhaps asking if there is a document proving his birth date, to which he replies:
-- Stephen Jones ~ April 16, 1834 Rev War Pension Interview
The parents of Stephen S. Jones are unknown. No document has been produced naming, much less proving, the parents of Stephen S. Jones of St. Mary's County, Maryland. However, many Jones researchers attribute Ambrose Jones Sr. and Catherine Collins of Granville County, North Carolina as his parents. This perpetuation of Ambrose Jones Sr. and Catherine Collins being Stephen S. Jones of St. Mary's County, Maryland parents may have been caused by the Mountain Trail Chapter of the D.A.R. of Harlan County, Kentucky during 1940. Unfortunately, the research notes and papers about Stephen by the MTC have been lost to flood waters of the Cumberland River. A number of Jones researchers including Linda Reno have concluded parents of Stephen Jones of St. Mary's County, Maryland remain unknown.
It is true Ambrose Jones Sr. and Catherine Collins were parents of a son named Stephen Jones in Granville County. However, the Stephen of Ambrose and Catherine Jones moved from Granville County, North Carolina to Halifax County, Virginia and married 1st)Catherine ___ and 2nd)Nancy Thompson. Ambrose Jones Sr. died in 1792 leaving a will which named his children. As well, when Ambrose and Catherine's son Gabriel Jones died, there was an estate settlement document which clearly names the children of his brother Stephen Jones. The children of Stephen Jones, son of Ambrose Jones Sr. are not the children of our Stephen Jones of St. Marys and Harlan counties.
Note: Is Stephen Jones of Halifax also the Stephen Jones of Person County, North Carolina?
The will of Stephen Jones of Person County includes a number of connections that are in Gabriel Jones' of Granville County intestate papers.[clarification needed]
md. 1st) Catherine __
2nd) Nancy Thompson
Halifax County, VA.
Person County, NC.
|Stephen Jones 1750-1844
md. Susannah Wilburn
Harlan County, KY.
|Stephen Jones 1760-1834|
md. Mary Gibbs
Bedford County, VA
|Catherine Jones||Gabriel Jones||Mary "Polly" Jones|
|Elizabeth Jones||John Jones|
|Rebecca Jones||Elijah Jones|
|Lucy Jones||Mary Ann Jones|
|Susan Jones||Zacharia Martin Jones|
|Sally Jones||Stephen Jones Jr.|
|James T. Jones|
Most Jones researchers know Stephen as Stephen Jones Sr., however, many cast his name as Stephen S. Jones or Stephen L. Jones. There are three documents that depict Stephens name with middle initials.
The first document is a Power of Attorney letter of January 28, 1828, by Stephen, which is dictated to George Brittain, Clerk Of Harlan County. The Power of Attorney letter clearly shows "S" as the middle initial.
The second document is the 1840 U.S. Census for Harlan County in which his middle initial appears as the letter "L". Also to note is the fact that Stephen's age is misrepresented. His age has been recorded as 99, which is obviously incorrect. The 1840 census commenced on June 1, 1840. Ewell V. Unthank was the enumerator who, by the way, married Sarah Jones, grand-daughter of Stephen. Upon reviewing the entire census for Harlan County, Ewell did not mark any dates. Even if Ewell didn't get to Stephen until late August of 1840, Stephen still would have been of 91 years of age.
The third document is the 1840 Pensioners Census in which the 1840 U.S. Census asked for the names and ages of "Pensioners for Revolutionary or Military Services. Essentially, the name was copied from the 1840 U.S. Census.
We believe the Power of Attorney document depicts the actual name of Stephen and the 1840 census form is incorrect.
Stephen Jones of St. Mary's County, Maryland married Susanna Wilburn Unk - Unk, daughter of Edward Wilburn Sr. 1725 - 1806 of Surry County, North Carolina. There has been no document produced illustrating any other wife to Stephen. While we do not have a marriage date or marriage documents, the proof of this marriage is found in several other documents including,
- The Last Will & Testament of Edward Wilburn, Susanna's father. dated 1806
- The Last Will & Testament of John Wilburn, Susanna's brother dated 1819
- The Petition of the Estate of Edward Wilburn dated 1822 and 1823.
- The Stephen Jones Power of Attorney letter with Richard Wilburn, Susanna's brother. dated January 28, 1828
Exactly when or where their marriage took place is unknown. However, as Gabriel Jones 1771 - 1831 is thought to be Stephen's first child born in 1771, it would seem reasonable their marriage was prior to 1771. It is also noted that "a" Stephen Jones is on the Property Tax Rolls of Surry County, North Carolina for the years of 1771 and 1772. While there is no proof, it would seem to indicate Gabriel, the first son, was possibly born in Surry County, North Carolina.
Stephen Jones of St. Mary's County, Maryland is alleged to have married both Nancy Thompson and Mary Catherine Adams. There is no proof or documentation of these marriages. Mary Catherine and Nancy Thompson both married Stephen Jones, Ambrose Jones Sr. and Catherine Collins son. Stephen Jones of Granville County, North Carolina married Nancy Thompson in Halifax County, Virginia in 1802 [[Gabriel Jones[[, son of Ambrose Jones Sr. and Catherine Collins and the brother of Stephen Jones, all of Granville County, North Carolina, stated in his estate settlement of 1831/1835 the wife of his brother Stephen to be Catharine. This would indicate Stephen Jones of Granville County possibly married Mary Catharine Adams after Nancy Thompson.
Through the years of 1779 to 1781, Stephen served a total of seven months duty in the North Carolina Militia. Prior to and during the Revolutionary War, North Carolina was divided into militia districts. Stephen's first two tours would have most likely been with the Hillsborough District militia which included Granville County, North Carolina. Stephen "removed" to Surry County, North Carolina in 1781 with his remaining tour most likely under the purview of Salisbury District, North Carolina which included Surry County.
Stephen Jones Sr. is recognized as a participant in the American Revolution by the Daughters of the American Revolution with a D.A.R. Ancestor ID of A062640.
Stephen's complete Rev War Petition interview and testimony can be read at Stephen S. Jones Sr. - Revolutionary War Pension Petition in copies of the original document or transposed in PDF format.
Granville County, N.C. Volunteer
According to Stephen's pension petition testimony, he states in 1779 he volunteered in Granville County, North Carolina, where he then resided. At the age of 29, Stephen Jones volunteered for a three month tour of duty in the North Carolina Militia. He did not, however, join the North Carolina Line, which was part of the Continental Army as some researchers suggest. Stephen came under the command of Capt. Richard Cook. (Richard Cook is also from St. Mary's County, Maryland) For the next 3 months they marched around the Catawba River gathering information on the Catawba Indians and their Tory allies. Later Stephen Jones and his fellow troops marched to the Yadkin River in Granville County, North Carolina where they came across a British Company. The baggage train of the Continentals soon came under fire from the British army. After a brief skirmish, the British were soon defeated and taken prisoner. After this engagement, Stephen Jones was discharged from the militia.
Granville County, North Carolina fell under the purview of the Hillsborough District militia. Within the Hillsborough District were the counties of Caswell, Chatham, Granville, Orange, Randolph, and Wake.
That he entered the service of the United States as a militia soldier in Granville County, North Carolina where he then resided as a volunteer for a tour of three months in the year 1779 as well as he now remembers under the following officers ...
Richard Cook - Captain, William Moon - Colonel, Thomas Person - General and – Briant [?] Lieutenant .. We marched from Granville County to Hillsboro, thence to Salisbury in Rowan County. Thence we marched for the Indian Nation, fell upon the Catawba River and up the same as far as Silver Creek. There we were met by our General Parsons who, as we understood, had by a near route, crossed the Blue Ridge to the garrison and brought back word that our services were not wanting and ordered a retreat which we obeyed. We reached Granville before our three months was out but continued there under the command of our officers until our three months was out. I received no written discharge for this service."
The map to the right shows an approximate route Stephen's company may have taken in his first sortie in 1779. Of course, we are assuming a few things as we have no details as to the actual route that was taken. We assume the militia assembled at Oxford, North Carolina, the county seat of Granville County. The distance between Oxford and Silver Creek at Morgantown is about 200 miles. By Stephen's account it took nearly three months to make that round trip.
Cross Creek Sortie
|Cross Creek Sortie|
|Part of American Revolutionary War|
|North Carolina Line||British Regulars|
Stephen's sortie to Cross Creek, now known as Fayetteville, North Carolina, was uneventful. As quoted by Stephen Jones Sr. in his Revolutionary War Pension Petition, 1834 ...
[He states that] ... "in the year 1780, as well as I remember, I know it was before the last tour I have mentioned, I was drafted to go a tour to Cross Creek (today known as [[Fayetteville, North Carolina|Fayetteville, North Carolina]]) against the British. I do not remember how long I was drafted for nor do I know how long I served. I only know we marched to Cross Creek but before we got there, understanding that the British had left the place, we returned home. From old age and the consequent loss of memory, I can not tell precisely how long I served in this tour but from the best of my knowledge and recollection not less than one month."
Yadkin River Sortie
Stephen would have been drafted in the Salisbury District, North Carolina, which included Surry County, North Carolina. Could this also be where Stephen rides with Captain Enoch Osborne. It's also questionable if our Stephen rode with Osborne at all. There are conflicting bits of information regarding the acquisition of his military headstone that he was under Osborne's command. Osborne led men in Virginia during the Rev War. There is no indication that Stephen served in Virginia during the war.
As quoted by Stephen Jones Sr. in his Revolutionary War Pension Petition, 1834 ...
''"Afterwards in the year 1781, as well as I remember, I was drafted in [[Surry County, North Carolina]], where I had removed, for a tour of three months under [[Colonel William Moon]], [[Captain John Nall]], [[Lieutenant Robert Baker]]. We marched from Surry and joined [[Colonel Morgan]] on the [[Catawba River]]. I believe it was in the month of February. We had to wade the [[Catawba River]]. Colonel Morgan ordered us to [[Salisbury, North Carolina]] to guard some British prisoners. Whilst we were guarding these prisoners, Morgan whipped [[Banastre Tarleton|(Colonel) Tarleton]] and brought his prisoners to Salisbury. With all the prisoners now together, we commenced a retreat. The rain fell upon us and we were forced to march across the Adkin [sic, Yadkin River]. Many of the soldiers, I among the number [indecipherable word] as I am [indecipherable word or words] had to wade the River.The British opened a fire upon our baggage wagons as they were crossing the river. Thence to the Virginia line, there other troops took the prisoners into custody and our time being near out, that we had not time to reach home before it would expire. We were ordered home. When I got home I received a written discharge for this service having fully performed the three months and a few days over."''
Battle of Guilford Court House
Further proof that our Stephen Jones of St. Mary's County, Maryland was not in Halifax County, Virginia is found in the Rev War Pension Application of Robert W. Fitz. Robert W. Fitz vows under oath that in 1781 he substituted for Stephen Jones of Halifax County, son of Ambrose Jones Sr. and Catherine Collins. We know for a fact our Stephen Jones of St. Mary's County, Maryland was in Surry County, North Carolina in 1781.
Stephen's time and route of migration from Maryland to North Carolina is unknown. All we really know is that in 1779 Stephen volunteered into the North Carolina Militia in Granville County, Maryland. Sometime between 1750 and 1779, Stephen or his entire family, made their way into Virginia and then to North Carolina. The most likely route from St. Mary's County would have been over land to the north, following the Potomac River and to the The Philadelphia Road. Once on the Great Wagon Road, it is but a short distance to Fredericktown, Maryland, where several highways of the day converge and head south.
Emanuel Bowen, a well known British cartographer, penned a map of Virginia and Maryland in 1752 including St. Mary's County. The map shows towns and plantations as well as locations of Indian settlements.
It is an undisputed fact stated in Stephen's Rev War Pension Petition, #S38092, that he was born in St. Mary's County, Maryland on August 19, 1750. We have no information as to where Stephen may have lived in St. Mary's County. We do not know any facts on his departure from Maryland. We do know that Stephen departed Maryland and arrived in North Carolina prior to 1779 based on his role in the North Carolina Militia.
There were several Jones' in St. Mary's County in the time frame of the birth of Stephen Jones in 1750. As we do not know Stephen's parents, the following could possibly be related to Stephen Jones in some fashion; John Jones, Joseph Jones, Solomon Jones, Walter Jones and William Jones. The names listed are Jones' who are owners of land in St. Mary's County in the time frame between 1720 - 1750.
St. Mary's County
In 1637 the entire colony of Maryland was St Mary's County. By 1696 counties had formed and reformed with the last county line for St. Mary's County being drawn in 1696 which to this day still holds. St. Mary's County is sandwiched between the Patuxen and Patowomack (Potomac) rivers to the north and south with the Chesapeake Bay to the east and Virginia to the west.
The two main cities in 18th century St. Mary's County were St. Mary's City on St Mary's River, the original capitol of Maryland, and Leonardtown. By Stephen Jones' birth in 1750, the estimated population of Maryland was just under 150,000 people with tobacco as it's primary economic engine. That was up from a mere 29,000 people in 1700.
Soon to add North Carolina detail. (Jan 2019)
Some sources claim Stephen Jones moved to Lee County, Virginia in 1782 , however, Lee County, Virginia did not exist until 1793. This move would have been to Washington County, Virginia, making him one of the earlier pioneer families to do so. Russell County, Virginia was carved out of Washington County, Virginia in 1786. Finally, Russell County, Virginia was split with the Southwestern most portion of Virginia becoming Lee County, Virginia in 1793. This author surmises Stephen Jones did not move from county to county as research suggests. Rather Stephen Jones, after leaving Surry County, North Carolina stayed in one place along the Virginia/Kentucky boundary prior to Kentucky becoming a state in 1792. With county boundaries being created, it caused the appearance of movement for Stephen Jones. Keep in mind, while the division of Russell County was in discussion and put to leadership during 1792, the Commonwealth of Kentucky was created. However, it is this author's surmise that Stephen was actually living on Kentucky soil but due to the logistics of the wilderness, was counted in Virginia until 1797. By 1799, Stephen is counted in the Knox County, Kentucky roll call.
Washington County, VA.
A Stephen Jones is listed in ......
The first census of the United States was carried out in 1790. There is a single Stephen Jones enumerated in Russell County.
Although a date is not given, the following is listed on Page 91 in the RUSSELL COUNTY, VIRGINIA LAW ORDER BOOK 2 (1792 - 1799):
In 1792 many inhabitants of Russell County, most likely the lower portion or Southwestern most part of Russell County petitioned the local government to separate from Russell County and create a new county. The petition passed in 1793 and the creation of Lee County made. On the list of petitioners is Stephen Jones and Vincent Hobbs.
In 1794, Stephen Jones would be part of the Vincent Hobbs Militia to capture Chief Robert Benge of the Cherokee Indians. Chief Robert Benge started his raids in 1785 by attacking the Archibald Scott family at Wallen Creek. These raids continued until 1794. In April 1794, Vincent Hobbs and his militia waited for Chief Robert Benge at Stone Gap, a gap used by both the Shawnee and Cherokee for their raids into Lee County, Virginia. Chief Benge was in route bringing some prisoners his braves had captured to be adopted into their tribe to replace family members killed by the white settlers. Hobbs and his men ambushed Benge killing him and 3 Indian braves. This was the last Indian battle fought in Southwest VA.
Virginia Tax Records
Interesting to note that Stephen Jones is not listed as taxed in 1794 by either Lee or Russell Counties, however it is clear that he is in Virginia. Could it be that Stephen was with Hobbs and involved with chasing down Chief Benge during the taxation period? What else was going on in 1794?
Russell County, VA.
A Stephen Jones is found on the 1789, 1790, 1792 and 1793 Russell Co., Virginia Personal Property Tax List and labeled as:
Stephen Jones Lower
Lee County, VA.
A Stephen Jones is found on the 1795, 1796, 1797 Lee County, Virginia Personal Property Tax List. 1797 is the last year this Stephen Jones is seen on Southwestern Virginia rolls.
Kentucky became the 15th colonial state on June 1, 1792. Until 1780, the entire area of Kentucky was known as Kentucky County, Virginia. Kentucky County, Virginia was abolished in 1780 being divided into the three counties of Fayette, Jefferson and Lincoln counties, Virginia. While Lincoln County, Virginia was further divided after 1780, the remainder of Lincoln County included the entire south eastern region of Kentucky, including current Knox and Harlan counties until Kentucky became a state in 1792. Knox County would not appear until 1799 with Harlan County following in 1819.
In April of 1834, Stephen states in his Rev War pension application that, "I lived in Kentucky where I now live near 40 years." By taking Stephen's claim literally at 40 years, he would have then entered Kentucky about 1794 and lived in Lincoln County, Kentucky. Stephen would be 83 years old in April of 1834 and turning 84 by August of 1834. By his own timeline, he is in Kentucky by the age of 43 or 44 and still quite the young man. Even if we cut two or three years from his "40 year" claim, Stephen is still in Lincoln County, Kentucky well before Knox County was created. However, keep in mind that a Stephen Jones is listed on the 1797 Property Tax List for Lee County, Virginia[clarification needed].
The migration of Stephen Jones Sr. from North Carolina and reto Kentucky is an interesting project. It is this author's thoughts that Stephen Jones didn't migrate to Kentucky through the various Virginia counties. Rather, he initially move into what is now the Verda area of current Harlan County in the late 1780's and that south western Virginia counties were divided and created which makes it appear that Stephen is physically moving from place to place, when in fact, he had been in Kentucky from the time he moved to Washington County, Virginia. [Speculation?]
Some researchers report that Stephen Jones Sr. moved to Harlan County, Kentucky in 1794. This is just not true as the Lee County, Virginia Personal Tax records prove he was in Virginia until at least 1797. However, it appears Stephen is in Kentucky by 1799 as he is indeed listed on the 1799-1800 tax list in Knox County, Kentucky. According to some, Stephen Jones is apparently the first frontiersman to settle in the Verda, Kentucky area of then Knox County. Early USGS survey's of the area do not include the name of Verda. Today's Verda area has gone under several names. According to USGS, both the 1887 and 1891 maps of the area were known as Jonesville maps. Also known as Nolansburg map, the town of Verda did not appear on USGS maps until 1919, illustrated below. The town of Verda operated a US Post Office from 1917 through 1964, at which time the post office was renamed to Verda Rural Station from 1964 through 1973 before being closed down. Prior to the Verda post office, there was a Jonesburgh Post Office from 1886 though 1894 in Bledsoe and a Jonesburg Post Office from 1894 through 1896 in Nolansville.
In 1807, Mary, Stephen Jones’s first wife died and was buried in Verde KY. Some researchers also claim that after Mary's death, Stephen Jones married Nancy Thompson. This doesn't appear to true either. As this Nancy Thompson married Stephen Jones of Halifax County, Virginia, son of Ambrose Jones and Catherine Collins of Granville County, North Carolina fame.
In 1828, Nancy died and also buried in Verde KY. Later that year Jones marred Susannah Wilburn. In 1832, Jones applied for a pension for his service in the revolutionary war. Sometime before 1840, Jones died and was buried near Jones creek
Knox County Census 1810
Knox/Harlan County Transfer
Harlan County was formed in 1819 from the Eastern portion of Knox County. See list of men, aged 21 and older, transferred from Knox County to Harlan County.
Land & Deeds
1804 - Land grant in Knox county.
We do not know the exact date of Stephen's death. What we do know is he was enumerated in the 1840 US Census, that he received his military pension until at least the 2nd quarter of 1841 and that he is not enumerated in the 1850 US Census. We can assume he lived until at least the spring/summer of 1841. According to the U.S. Government GAO, Stephen Jones received a last pension payment during the 2nd quarter of 1841.
According to Kentucky Deaths and Burials records, a Stephen Jones died in 1844.
To date, no Last Will & Testament has been uncovered for Stephen S. Jones Sr.
Stephen S. Jones Sr. is believed to be buried in Jones Cemetery, also known as Crab Orchard Cemetery, in Harlan County, Ky. The cemetery is located on private property in the community of Ross Point, just off Highway 119 in Harlan County. It's interesting to note the "Latin Cross" on the headstone. The option for a religious symbol, either the cross or the Star of David, was not available until May 12, 1925. 
Dr. James Black Jones, DDM, a direct descendant of Stephen as well as a highly regarded and well respected member of the Harlan community, initiated a military headstone request for Stephen Jones burial location on Wednesday, October 18, 1939. On November 27, 1939 Dr. Jones' request is approved and December 22, 1939, the headstone was shipped to Harlan County. The fact that Dr. Jones, of such high stature, goes to this trouble, lends credence to the unproven fact that John Jones Sr. 1774 - 1870 is indeed, a son of Stephen S. Jones Sr.
The Mountain Trail Chapter of the D.A.R. also placed a headstone
Excerpt from a newspaper printed in September 1940 at the time the Government tombstone at the grave of Stephen Jones was dedicated:
Harlan County, Kentucky
Mountain Trail Chapter NSDAR
Data for Stephen Jones, Revolutionary Soldier
DAR to place marker at grave of Stephen Jones, Revolutionary War Soldier, in program near Verda. Dedication services in which a marble marker will be placed at the grave will be conducted Sunday by the Mountain Trail Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. The program will mark the completion of several months work by several menbers of the DAR Chapter, in which the Genealogy of Stephen Jones was traced. The grave is located on Jones Creek about 1 1/4 miles from Verda. The program will include an address by Mrs. Daniel Boone Smith and Luther Jones, Superintendent of Dizney School, one of the descendants of Stephen Jones. The program will start at 2:00.
A cordial invitation to the services has been extended to all descendants, all patriotic societies, the National Guard, and the public in general. The marker was provided by the Government last May and since that time the members of the DAR Chapter have been tracing the line of Stephen Jones. Two descendants of the man, Dr. J. B. Jones of Harlan, and Rev. J.R. Jones of Verda have given material and assistance in locating the grave and erecting the marker.
Harlan Co was not formed until 1819 From Knox Co... He might have lived in Knox Co and that part transferred to Harlan Co in 1819 There are these Jones who were transferred to Harlan Co from Knox Co in 1819 Zachariah JonesStephen Jones SrJames JonesElijah JonesJohn Jones
1835 US Rev War Pensioners of Harlan County
- However, this [author] continues to study for any hint of Jones activity in Stephen's birth county of St. Mary's County, Maryland.
- Radoff, Morris L.; Skordas, Gust; Jacobsen, Phebe H. (1963). "The County Courthouses and Records of Maryland -- Part 2: The Records". Archives of Maryland Online. Publication #13. Annapolis. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Melba Porter Hay; Dianne Wells; Thomas H. Appleton, Jr.; Thomas H. Appleton (2002). Roadside History: A Guide to Kentucky Highway Markers. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 30–. ISBN 0-916968-29-4.
- An email exchange on December 11, 2018 between Pam Brewer of the Mountain Trail Chapter of DAR and this [author] confirmed the lost.
- Reno, Linda. "A Journey Through Time" (PDF). St. Mary's County Genealogical Society. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Proved on page 225 of the Harlan County Deed Book A
- "United States Census, 1840," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XHRK-KSV : 15 August 2017), Stephen L Jones, Harlan, Kentucky, United States; citing p. 116, NARA microfilm publication M704, (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 113; FHL microfilm 7,827.
- Government, US Federal. "Clues in Census Records, 1790-1840". National Archives. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Congress, United States (1841). A Census Of Pensioners For Revolutionary Or Military Services With Their Names, Ages and Places Of Residence As Returned By The Marshals Of The Several Judicial Districts, Under The Act For Taking The Sixth Census. Washington : Printed by Blair and Rives. Archived from the original on 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
- Ancestry.com. Virginia, Marriages, 1740-1850 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 1999. Original data: Dodd, Jordan R., et al.. Early American Marriages: Virginia to 1850. Bountiful, UT, USA: Precision Indexing Publishers.
- General Joseph Martin Chapter-SAR
- Harris, C. Leon (8 February 2015). "Pension Application of Robert W. Fitz S8475" (PDF). Southern Campaigns Revolutionary War Pension Statements & Rosters. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- Wikipedia contributors, "Emanuel Bowen," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Emanuel_Bowen&oldid=845007895 (accessed December 9, 2018).
- Reno, Linda; Dawson, Marcella Jehl Dawson (2001). "St. Mary's County Land Ownership: 1637-1799". University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Dawson, Marcella Jehl Dawson (2001). "St. Mary's Families". University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
- General Joseph Martin Chapter
- Robertson, Rhonda. "RUSSELL COUNTY, VIRGINIA LAW ORDER BOOK 2 (1792 - 1799)". Rootsweb - Ancestry.com. Unknown. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- "1790 Russell County Personal Tax List Part A". Binn's Genealogy. February 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
- Ancestry.com - Jillson, Willard Rouse. The Kentucky Land Grants. Vol. I-II. Louisville, KY, USA: Filson Club Publications, 1925.
- "Kentucky Deaths and Burials, 1843-1970," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:FWPP-YM1 : 10 February 2018), Stephen Jones, 1844; citing reference page 188; FHL microfilm 209,708.
- Jones, LC (ed.). "Headstone Records Research Guide" (PDF). Military Veterans Headstones - Nonfederal-cemeteries. US Government. Retrieved 17 Jan 2018.
- United States Senate.The Pension Roll of 1835.4 vols. 1968 Reprint, with index. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1992.
- [General Joseph Martin Chapter - SAR|http://www.josephmartinchapter.org/jones.html]